REFERENCE DATA USED FOR COMPUTATIONS ON THIS WEB SITE
Values marked with  *  are EXACT values or adopted standards.
Speed Of Light 299792458 m/s  * (NIST)
299792.458 km/s
186282.397 mi/s
1 Foot (ft) 0.3048 m  *
1 Statute Mile (mi) 1609.344 m  *
1.609344 km
0.8689762419006479 nmi
1760 yd
5280 ft
1 Kilometer (km) 0.621371192237334 mi
3280.8398950131233596 ft
1093.6132983377077865 yd
1 Nautical Mile (nmi) 1852 m  *
1.852 km
1.1507794480235425 mi
2025.3718285214348206 yd
6076.1154855643044619 ft
1 Astronomical Unit  (AU) 149597871 km  * (IAU)
149597870.691 km ±0.030 (NASA/JPL)
92955807.267 mi
Light Time To Span 1 AU 499.0047838061356433 seconds
8 minutes and 19.004784 seconds
0.0057755183310895 day
Solar Radius 695508 km  *
432169 mi
Earth Radius 6356.755 km (Polar) 3949.904 mi
6367.448 km (Mean) 3956.549 mi
6373.140 km (Equatorial) 3960.086 mi
Lunar Radius 1736.0 km (Polar) 1078.7 mi
1737.1 km (Mean) 1079.4 mi
1738.1 km (Equatorial) 1080.0 mi
Geocentric Lunar Distance 363301 km (Min = Perigee) 225745 mi
384401 km (Mean) 238856 mi
405502 km (Max = Apogee) 251967 mi
Horizontal Parallax At 1 AU 8.79415"
0.0024428194444444°
Standard Julian Year 365.25 days  *
365 days and 6 hours
8766 hours
525960 minutes
31557600 seconds
Standard Gregorian Year 365.2425 days  *
365 days 5 hrs 49 min and 12 sec
8765.82 hours
525949.2 minutes
31556952 seconds
1 Light Year (LY) 9460730472580.8 km
5878625373183.6 mi
63241.0770880709446742 AU
0.3066013952202032 pc
1 Parsec (pc) 30856775670468 km
206264.80624709635488 AU
3.2615637619058885 LY
Standard Earth Gravity
9.80665 m/s2  *
1.000 G  *
32.17405 ft/s2
Newtonian Constant Of Gravitation
0.0000000000667428 m3/kg/s2
Stefan-Boltzmann Radiation Constant (σ)
0.000000056704 W/m2/s/T4
 
Physical Constants - NIST   Planetary Fact Sheets - NASA

SOME REFERENCES CONSULTED IN THE PROGRAMMING
OF THIS WEB SITE AND HIGHLY RECOMMENDED
Planetary Theories in Rectangular and Spherical Variables
VSOP87 Solutions

Pierre Bretagnon, Gerard Francou
Astronomy and Astrophysics (1988)
Vol. 202, p309-p315

A scanned copy of this paper is available on this web site.

This source paper, by the original authors, Pierre Bretagnon and Gerard Francou, explains the derivation and mathematical foundations of the VSOP87 theory and how it all works.   Their extraordinary work lays the foundation upon which the long-term planetary positions programs on this web site are built, based on a full-precision implementation of the theory programmed in PHP 5x.


Astronomical Algorithms - 2nd Edition
Jean Meeus
Pub. Willmann-Bell, Inc. (1998)
ISBN 0-943396-61-1

Jean Meeus has published numerous valuable astronomical algorithms over the years, some of which have been adapted for use here and applied to the programming of this web site.


Secular Terms of Classical Planetary Theories Using the Results of General Theory
Astronomy and Astrophysics
Vol. 157, p68, Table 8 (1986)

J. Laskar

This is the source paper upon which the computation of the long-term obliquity of the ecliptic is based.   A scanned copy of this paper is available on this web site.


Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac
U.S. Naval Observatory (1992)
ISBN 0-935702-68-7

This advanced reference book, published by the U.S. Naval Observatory, is a must-have for anyone interested in astro-computing.   It explains, in intricate detail, hundreds of the computations encountered in modern astronomy and used in the making of the published astronomical almanacs.


The Principle Of Relativity
A collection of original papers on the special and general theory of relativity.

A. Einstein, H.A. Lorentz, H. Weyl, H. Minkowski
Dover Publications, Inc. (1952)
SBN 486-60081-5


Relativity For Scientists and Engineers
Ray Skinner
Dover Publications, Inc. (1982)
ISBN 0-486-64215-1


Discovering Relativity For Yourself
Sam Lilley
Cambridge University Press (1981)
ISBN 0-521-23038-1


© Jay Tanner - PHP Science Labs - 2014