Temperature Scale Equivalents

This program computes the equivalents of a given input
temperature on the F, C, K and R temperature scales.

 Input Temperature: Input Scale:   F        C        K        R
 ```Temperatures equivalent to  0° F = -17.7777777778° C = 255.3722222222° K = 459.67° R ```

Formulas Used In This Program

The input temperature is internally converted into its
equivalent on the K scale. Then that value is in turn
converted into its equivalent on all the other scales
and then the computed results displayed.

By definition, there are no negative temperatures on
either of the absolute K or R scales, but the program
will still allow computations using negative absolute
values and will NOT report an error.

Let:
F = Degrees Fahrenheit
C = Degrees Celsius
K = Degrees Kelvin (or 'kelvins' to pedantic fussbudgets)
R = Degrees Rankine

Then:

And then, to convert a temperature from the K
scale into its equivalents on the other scales:

 ```NOTES ON THE TEMPERATURE SCALES: -------------------- F = Fahrenheit scale Invented by the German-Dutch physicist Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit in 1724. It is based on the difference between the freezing point and boiling point of water being divided into 180 equal degrees. Ideal freezing point of water = 32 F Ideal boiling point of water = 212 F Plotted on a circle, the freezing and boiling points are opposite each other by ±180 degrees. ----------------- C = Celsius scale Invented by Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius in 1742. It is based on the difference between the freezing point and boiling point of water being divided into 100 equal degrees. Ideal freezing point of water = 0 C Ideal boiling point of water = 100 C ---------------- K = Kelvin Scale Named after the British mathematician and physicist William Thomson Kelvin, who first proposed it in 1848. It is commonly used in advanced scientific computations. It is often referred to as the absolute temperature scale. The absolute temperature scale is measured in Celsius degrees from the absolute zero point. Absolute zero refers to the theoretical temperature at which molecular energy is at a minimum or, theoretically, the lowest possible temperature in nature. On this scale, there is no such thing as a negative temperature value. Ideal freezing point of water = 273.15 K Ideal boiling point of water = 373.15 K ----------------- R = Rankine Scale Named after the Scottish engineer and physicist William John Macquorn Rankine, who first proposed it in 1859. It is also an absolute temperature scale similar to the K scale temperatures, but instead, is measured in Fahrenheit degrees from the absolute zero point. Absolute zero refers to the theoretical temperature at which molecular energy is at a minimum or, theoretically, the lowest possible temperature in nature. On this scale, there is no such thing as a negative temperature value. Ideal freezing point of water = 491.67 R Ideal boiling point of water = 671.67 R -------------------------- Absolute zero equivalents: 0.00 K = 0.00 R = -273.15 C = -459.67 F ------------------------------------------------------ The ratio of Celsius to Fahrenheit degrees is 5 to 9. This means that a temperature difference of 5 degrees on the Celsius scale is equivalent to a difference of exactly 9 degrees on the Fahrenheit scale. This is the source of the ratios 5/9 and 9/5 used in the interconversion formulas. ------------------------------------------------------ The Fahrenheit and Celsius scales are numerically identical only at -40 degrees, while the Kelvin and Rankine scales are numerically identical only at absolute zero. ```

© Jay Tanner - PHP Science Labs - 2018